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  1. #16
    Quote Originally Posted by mrtyranno504 View Post
    Which do you think is more likely, that Gigantopithecus was more like a Gorrilla or an Orangutan, bipedal or quadrupedal because there is a lot of conflict on the subject and i wanted your thoughts
    A vertical spine seems to be the ancestral condition to crown hominoids due to brachiation requiring it, so quadrupedalism is secondary, and that can be further corroborated by comparing the gaits of chimps and gorillas: not the same and very probably independently evolved. Non arboreal forestal hominids tend to attain quadrupedal locomotion (bipedal ground locomotion with a vertical spine is quite awkward, but was a good adaptation to open forest and savannah environments, back pains and broken hips nonwithstanding), so Gigantopithecus was probably a quadrupedal animal, in account of its heavy mass. Still, Ponginae ground locomotion is poorly known in living animals (although it has some degree of quadrupedality, but also different from that of chimps and gorillas, and it is an uncommon event anyway), and, in any case, we have only a huge jaw and that's it. No idea of proportions or anything, just that we were dealing with a huge ape, probably with a reddish coloration, and that's it.

    When in doubt, Hominoids go biped on the trees, and tend to go quadrupedal if adapted to land, but it isn't common. And the savannah apes remained bipedal on the ground.

  2. #17
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    Would cross-species relationships like those sometimes rarely seen and documented of lions taking care of gazelle and the like be imagined to have occurred with dinosaurs as well, say for example a Tyrannosaurus and a young triceratops.

  3. #18
    Most likely yes. Modern birds often take care of other chicks - willingly or unwittingly via nest parasitism -, so dinosaurs probably also engaged in similar behaviours.

  4. #19
    Quote Originally Posted by pteranotropi View Post
    Most likely yes. Modern birds often take care of other chicks - willingly or unwittingly via nest parasitism -, so dinosaurs probably also engaged in similar behaviours.
    i highly doubt carnivorous predators such as the t-rex had any kind of relationship with anything lesser than him. hes a meat eater, meaning anything that was meat that crossed his path, he ate. they constantly hunt, just like raptors. now i can imagine say a styrachosaurus, and an ankylosaurus befriending each other, but not any carnivores to herbivores. but this just my theory i could be wrong

  5. #20
    Super Moderator JediSpectre117's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by SwisherSweet182 View Post
    i highly doubt carnivorous predators such as the t-rex had any kind of relationship with anything lesser than him. hes a meat eater, meaning anything that was meat that crossed his path, he ate. they constantly hunt, just like raptors. now i can imagine say a styrachosaurus, and an ankylosaurus befriending each other, but not any carnivores to herbivores. but this just my theory i could be wrong
    I imagine the same was said for a Lion mothering a Gazelle but look at the world now.

  6. #21
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    how is that dispute about Gorgosaurus having feathers or not going so far?

  7. #22
    There's not so much dispute about whether Gorgosaurus specifically had feathers, but there is some about whether tyrannosaurids in general did. They are certainly nested within a definitively feathered clade, but the confirmed tyrannosaurid skin impressions we have so far show naked skin and small scales. We still don't have direct evidence of the complete integument of any tyrannosaurid, so the short answer is we don't know for certain. But there is currently little reason to conclude they entirely lacked feathers.

    Quote Originally Posted by SwisherSweet182 View Post
    i highly doubt carnivorous predators such as the t-rex had any kind of relationship with anything lesser than him. hes a meat eater, meaning anything that was meat that crossed his path, he ate. they constantly hunt, just like raptors. now i can imagine say a styrachosaurus, and an ankylosaurus befriending each other, but not any carnivores to herbivores. but this just my theory i could be wrong
    Yet we know of more than one example of predators "adopting" potential prey items. Nature is rarely intuitive. In addition, hunting constantly is more of a trait of small predators that burn up their energy extremely quickly. Most sizable predators spend the majority of their time at rest.

  8. #23
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    Can we assume herbivores engaging with fellow herbivores over food and space no matter the species and era despite the popular image being of herds of multiple species side by side

  9. #24
    I've got quite a few questions for the better informed peeps here.

    #1. Recently, a new study came out that states the T.Rex bite strength is higher than before. That's fine and dandy, but I want an example of what that can do. Can it bite through a car, or a bike, or how many people stacked up? Something like that would be awesome.

    #2. Assuming Tyrannosaurs had feathers, is there any possibility they had the quills of the ornithisachians, and if not would it be protofeather 'fur' or more modern feathers?

    #3. What is the longest marine reptile -excluding something with a long neck-. I've heard some insane pliosaur estimates and after seeing the Jurassic world trailers i'm curious if anything got near that size.

    #4. What are some unique/interesting decent sized dinosaurs. In games, the main reason we only get raptors and rexes is because virtually every theropod just looks like them with a slight change to the number of fingers or teeth or a slightly shorter snout or something like that.

    #5. How useful is a thagomizer, it seems overly complicated to try to hurt something with it.

    #6. Finally, what's the current analysis on Spino locomotion?

  10. #25
    Forum Smart-**** DinoBear's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Karmataurus View Post
    #3. What is the longest marine reptile -excluding something with a long neck-. I've heard some insane pliosaur estimates and after seeing the Jurassic world trailers i'm curious if anything got near that size.

    #4. What are some unique/interesting decent sized dinosaurs. In games, the main reason we only get raptors and rexes is because virtually every theropod just looks like them with a slight change to the number of fingers or teeth or a slightly shorter snout or something like that.

    #5. How useful is a thagomizer, it seems overly complicated to try to hurt something with it.

    #6. Finally, what's the current analysis on Spino locomotion?
    #3. Nothing ever got even close to JW mosasaur in size among marine reptiles. IIRC, the largest known mosasaur is a Mosasaurus hoffmanni, which got to ~17 meters. I'm not terribly sure if the proportions cited for that individual are correct, so it may end up being a bit shorter (12-15 meters, still one of the largest known). Regardless, AFAIK mosasaurs like Mosasaurus and Tylosaurus are among the longest known marine reptiles (that don't have super long necks).

    #4. You have the super long and short Majungasaurus, ever popular Ceratosaurus, rather weird Torvosaurus, and Concavenator to name a few.

    #5. Very useful. Don't see how it's too complicated to hurt something with. You just shank/scare them with the spikes.

    #6. There is no current consensus.

  11. #26
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    To add to #3, the largest mosasaurs (Mosasaurus, Hainosaurus and possibly Tylosaurus) do indeed seem to max out somewhere in the region of 12 - 15 meters, although most material that indicates such sizes is very fragmentary (hence the uncertainty). They probably wouldn't weigh much more than an average male Orca though (6 tonnes).
    Pliosaurs aren't any longer - the largest are in the region of 12 - 13 meters - but said pliosaurs weigh a hell of a lot more, as in 15 - 20 tonnes.

    As for thagomizers well, you wouldn't want to get hit by one. Pretty sure there is at least one instance of an Allosaurus vertebrae having been punctured by the thagomizer of what one would assume belonged to Stegosaurus.

    I made auditions for Triceratops, Sinocalliopteryx, Tropeognathus and Utahraptor here.

  12. #27
    Aside from direct evidence of the potency of thagomizers, one study modeled the defense capabilities of Kentrosaurus. It's enough to say that you don't want to be on a stegosaur's bad side.

  13. #28
    Quote Originally Posted by Spinodontosaurus View Post
    To add to #3, the largest mosasaurs (Mosasaurus, Hainosaurus and possibly Tylosaurus) do indeed seem to max out somewhere in the region of 12 - 15 meters, although most material that indicates such sizes is very fragmentary (hence the uncertainty). They probably wouldn't weigh much more than an average male Orca though (6 tonnes).
    Pliosaurs aren't any longer - the largest are in the region of 12 - 13 meters - but said pliosaurs weigh a hell of a lot more, as in 15 - 20 tonnes.
    Pliosaurs and mosasaurs were small fry - by far the largest marine sauropsids were the shastasaurid ichthyosaurs of the Triassic. The nearly complete holotype skeleton of Shonisaurus (or Shastasaurus) sikanniensis measures 21 m in length, with isolated bones suggesting 23+ m individuals. Shonisaurus popularis was in the 15 m range and almost certainly outweighed comparably sized mosasaurs and pliosaurs with it's massively deep ribcage.
    Last edited by Ozraptor4; 12-01-2014 at 02:24 AM.

  14. #29
    Novaraptor Nadia's Avatar
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    I have a Question about Oviraptors.

    When I was young I had many books with illustrations of horned Oviraptors, but at some point this was changed in new books would only have illustrations of chrested Oviraptors, mostly because someone found a non crushed chrested skull.

    But when did that happen and who found the Fossils of the chrested Oviraptor?

  15. #30
    Well, most of the Oviraptor representations you will see are actually a different animal called Citipati, with different cranial ornamentation than Oviraptor. However, those animals were refered to Oviraptor; it is kinda complicated, but, anyway, the specimen that most 90's Oviraptor are based on, GIN 100/42, was described in 1981.

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